India

India, October and November 2019

I have wanted to travel to India for a long time. A mission at Société Générale allowed me to work with Indians, based in Bangalore, including Saiprasad who came for training in France for a few weeks. We spent a lot of time together, evenings and weekends. Suddenly, I decided to go there. But India is a big country. 21 days is not enough to see it all. So I divided my trip into 3 main stages: Bangalore, Mumbai and finally Delhi, three different cities. My choice was the right one. My only regret is not having spent more time in Mumbai, 4 days being insufficient. And I would have liked to take a look around Bollywood.
In October the monsoon is underway. This season represents the mildest season of the year where temperatures are similar to those of the rainy season. The weather is very cloudy and not rainy … Unfortunately, I had the right to rainy days, but it never killed anyone … And then, it’s also the life of Indians, so in India , or like an Indian.
India remains a strange country for Europeans. This country has been able to develop its technology with a Silicon Valley in Bangalore. This country almost became, in 2019, the 4th state to land a probe on the Moon. Knowing the will of the Indians, this is only a trial run. However, faced with this modernism, certain areas seem timeless, caught in a past from which they have difficulty leaving. I will tell you more about this in the various pages on India.
The most astonishing also remains these cows living freely. I imagined this in the countryside Yet Bangalore, Mumbai and even Delhi, to a lesser extent in the city, are faced with this. They wander around as they wish, taking advantage of the trash bags to eat, and the cars to avoid them. I even saw a man in Mumbai who I think was praying in front of a cow. However, in the market, cows are seen in a different light by the damage they can cause. Without touching them, I would say without “offending” them, the merchants try to keep them away from their stalls.
This trip remains a very good memory. I would come back because I want to go to the north, see Mumbai again, and much more.
The country
India (Hindi: Bhārat), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Gaṇarājya), is a home of some of the oldest civilizations in the world, the Indus Valley civilization developed there from 3000 BC. The Indian subcontinent was home to vast empires and has been present on trade routes since Antiquity. India is the birthplace of four major religions: Hinduism (majority with around 80% of followers), Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism – while Zoroastrianism, Christianity and Islam are there. established during the 1st millennium. India is today a very diverse country religiously, linguistically and culturally.
The name of the country “India” is derived from the Old Persian version, “hindu”, of the Sanskrit word “Sindhu”, the name of the Indus river in Sanskrit. The country’s constitution also uses the word “Bharat” (a Hindi word derived from the Sanskrit name of an ancient Aryan king whose history can be found in the Mahabharata). A third name, “Hindustan” or “Hindustan” to listen to the word has been used since the period of the Mughal Empire and is still used today by Indians in everyday speech. The plural “India” was commonly used before the independence of the country.
The oldest human traces found in South Asia date back around 30,000 years. Around 7000 BC. AD, the first Neolithic settlement appears on the subcontinent at Mehrgarh and other sites in western Pakistan. These develop to form the Indus Valley Civilization, the first urban culture of South Asia that exists between 2500 and 1900 BC. BC in Pakistan and western India. Centered around towns like Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relying on different livelihoods, civilization engages in artisanal production and large-scale trade. The caste system, creating a hierarchy between priests, warriors and free peasants, but excluding the natives by declaring their occupations impure, would have emerged in the period 2000 to 500 BC, period of the Vedas, the oldest texts of Hinduism.
At the end of the Vedic period, around the 5th century BC. J.C., the small chiefdoms of the plains of the Ganges and the north-west consolidated around sixteen important oligarchies and monarchies known as the Mahajanapadas. The emergence of urbanization and religious orthodoxies during this period led to the religious reform movements of Buddhism and Jainism, both of which became independent religions. Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha attracts followers from all walks of life, and the chronicles of Buddha’s life are central to the early written history of India. Jainism becomes important during the same period, during the life of Mahāvīra. While in this period, urban wealth increases, these two religions make renunciation an ideal and both establish monasteries.
The first part of the Indian Middle Ages, between 600 and 1200, is characterized by regional kingdoms and great cultural diversity. No ruler of this time is able to create an empire and control territories beyond the core of his kingdom like Harsha of Kânnauj, the Chalukya dynasty, the Pallava. At the same time, the pastoral peoples, whose lands are used for the growing agricultural economy, are integrated into the caste society, as a result of which the caste system begins to see regional differences emerge. In the 6th and 7th centuries, the first devotional hymns were created in Tamil. They are imitated throughout India and cause a resurgence of Hinduism and the development of modern languages ​​on the subcontinent. Indian kings and the temples they finance attract large numbers of worshipers. Pilgrimage towns of various sizes are popping up everywhere and India is urbanizing again. After the tenth century, the nomadic Muslim clans of Central Asia, with their cavalry and vast armies, regularly entered the plains of the northwest, which resulted in the creation of the Sultanate of Delhi in 1206. At the start of the 16th century, North India fell into the hands of a new generation of Central Asian warriors. The Mughal Empire will lead to a more systematically centralized and standardized government and trade is expanding there. At the start of the 18th century, the divides between commercial and political domination disappeared and European trading companies, notably the British East India Company, established trading posts on the coasts. The control of the English Company on the seas, its important resources and its military and technological advance allow it to take control of Bengal in 1765 and to sideline the other European companies. During the 1820s, the Company relied on the wealth of Bengal to increase the power of its army and annexed or dominated most of India. This domination marked the beginning of the colonial period: India stopped exporting manufactured goods and became a supplier of raw materials to the British Empire. At the same time, the Company’s economic powers are reduced and the Company increasingly engages in non-economic fields, such as education, social reform and culture. The appointment in 1848 of James Broun-Ramsay as Governor General of the East India Company marked the beginning of a number of reforms to modernize the state. Among these changes were technological advancements like railways, canals and the telegraph, which were introduced in India shortly after Europe. However, dissatisfaction with the Company grew during this period and culminated in the Indian Rebellion of 1857. In the decades that followed, public life began to emerge and, in 1885, the Indian National Congress was established. Between the years 1870 and 1890, nearly thirty million Indians died of successive famines. The degree of responsibility of the British colonial administration is a subject of controversy among historians.
After World War I, in which a million Indians served, a new period began, marked by reforms from the British but also by repressive legislation and repeated calls for self-determination and the beginnings of the nonviolent movement of no -cooperation of which Mahatma Gandhi becomes the leader and the symbol. This movement led to some legislative reforms in the 1930s and Congress won the resulting elections. But the decade that followed was marked by crises: the colonial government engaged India in World War II, Congress pushed further non-cooperation as Muslim nationalism intensified.
The independence movement ended on August 15, 1947, but the subcontinent was divided into two states: India and Pakistan. The colonial period represents for India a strong economic decline, compared to the rest of the world. After having been a constitutional monarchy for three years, India’s constitution came into force in 1950, making the country a federal and democratic parliamentary republic. Since then, India has remained a democracy, the most populous in the world: civil liberties are protected and the press is largely independent.
Source
Albums of India
Bangalore and Mysore: Bangalore, the Indian Silicon Valley and Mysore, a city with a historic past.
Mumbai: One of the 10 most populous cities in India, between modernism and colonial past.
Delhi and Agra: Delhi or New Delhi, the capital and agglomeration, and Agra, a city of history.
Street Markets: Discovery of covered markets and shopping streets.
Transportation: The different transports in India, the past, the present and the future.
Portraits: Different portraits or similar.
Special: Unusual pix as well as videos.
Some pix that you will find in the different albums